The KAIROS solution
Based on the preliminary input from the aviation community, KAIROS aims to develop an AI-based weather forecasting platform to improve the predictability of the following weather phenomena:
Thunderstorms are frequent in the summer and coincide with a period of high air-traffic demand in the European airspace. This combination of bad weather and high demand causes significant disruption to air-traffic-management operations.
Turbulence is a major safety concern for airspace users and the leading cause of injuries to cabin crew and passengers in non-fatal accidents. Turbulence cost the aviation industry hundreds of millions of dollars each year [FAA]. The frequency of occurrence of severe turbulence is expected to increase significantly due to climate change .
High altitude ice crystals
Severe convection events with a strong updraft can cause a thunderstorm to break through the tropopause forming a dome-like structure, known as overshooting tops. These overshooting tops release moisture in high levels of the atmosphere. This presence of moisture at these high-altitude levels can lead to the formation of ice crystals. The ingestion of ice crystals by aircraft engine can lead to flameout in combustors, raising safety concerns to the operation of the flight.
Poor visibility due to low clouds and foggy conditions can cause major disruptions at airports as well as to low flying aircraft such as UAS/UAM. Anticipating when visibility will be limited can help operators plan effectively.
Exposure to SO2 and dust by gas turbine engines can lead to the corrosion fatigue and sulphidation of turbine blades. This deterioration in engine hardware can lead to a reduction in safety margins to aircraft operations as well as increased maintenance costs.